Health is the level of functional and metabolic efficiency of a living organism. In humans it is the ability of individuals or communities to adapt and self-manage when facing physical, mental or social changes. The World Health Organization (WHO) defined health in its broader sense in its 1948 constitution as “a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.”
Fire Chief (or Chief Fire Officer in England and Wales; or Fire Master in Scotland) is a top executive rank or commanding officer in a fire department (either elected or appointed) who is responsible for carrying out the day-to-day tasks of running a firefighting organization. Such tasks include supervising other officers and firefighters at an emergency scene and recruiting, training, and equipping them for their respective duties. Depending upon local needs and organization, the Chief may also be involved in fire prevention, fire inspection, disaster preparedness, emergency medical services, and related disciplines, as well as administrative duties such as budgets and personnel issues, research into safety and regulations, and liaison with other agencies.
A chief of police, also known as police chief or sometimes shortened to just chief, is the title typically given to the top official in the chain of command of a police department, particularly in North America. Alternate titles for this position include police commissioner, colonel (in the Rhode Island State Police), police superintendent, police president, and chief constable. In contrast to a sheriff (who is generally elected by the voters of a county, except in the states of Rhode Island and Hawaii), a chief of police is usually a municipal employee who owes his allegiance to a city or town. Some states have both an appointed and an elected chief of police (Louisiana). In some jurisdictions the head of the police commission is the leader of the police and holds a position analogous or similar to the one described here, in this case he is referred to as commissioner. The New York City Police Department has both a police commissioner and a chief, formerly called the chief inspector, now called the chief of department. In Louisiana, a chief of police may serve as the chief of police, marshal, and constable of a city. The fraternal organization International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) is an organization that many chiefs of police are associated with.